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Human Resources Development @ Webster University Libraries

What are citations and why should you use them?

Citations are a way to tell your reader that some ideas in your paper, project or presentation were borrowed from another author's work. Each citation should:

  • Give credit to the original author(s) of text that you quote directly or ideas that you paraphase or summarize in your paper
  • Give your reader complete information so they can find and read the original source for themselves
  • Provide outside research to support your ideas and
  • help your reader to determine which ideas you borrowed from another's work and which are your own.
  • Help you to avoid plagiarism
  • Follow a specific pattern based on a citation style, e.g. APA, Chicago/Turabian, MLA, etc.

Help with APA Citation (7th ed.)

The Americal Psychological Association created this citation style for use in the social sciences, including psychology and business. The 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was released in October 2019. Be sure to check with your instructor about which edition to use.

APA citation help from Webster U Library

Video

Print manuals

Citation (APA, Chicago, MLA) Research Guides

When in doubt, ask your instructor which citation style to use for your paper or project. For help, link to research guides with information and resources on selected styles:

  • APA
  • Chicago/Turabian
  • Harvard
  • MLA

Want to build your own database of references and research as you collect them?  Check out the Mendeley Research Guide 

How do I cite articles from the library's databases?

When you cite a full text article retrieved from a library database, some citation styles require you to cite the database name and/or a URL. Here’s how Webster’s most-used citation styles address this issue: 

APA (7th): Requires that one include only the Digital Object Identifier / DOI if available. If there is no DOI listed in the database or on the article itself,  do not include any database information nor a URL.   

MLA (9th); Chicago; AMA; Harvard: If there is a DOI, add both it and the database name to the citation. If a DOI is not available, include the database name and provide the database permalink or, if no permalink, a URL. Our FAQ, finding a database permalink, shows how to obtain a permalink from two of our biggest database platforms, ProQuest and EBSCOhost.  

Be sure to check the appropriate citation guide for how to format the citation in the style required for your assignment.  

Managing your citations

There are a number of software programs available that help students store references and notes, create bibliographies, etc. While not needed for every assignment, they are particularly useful for when you are gathering a large number of articles and other resources for projects such as capstone papers, theses, and dissertations.The Webster University Libraries support Mendeley, but other products may work just as well. Make sure the software program you choose covers the bibliographic style you will be using to format your references, such as APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.

Webster U's Writing Center and Online Writing Center

Whether you are an experienced academic writer or this is your first paper, Webster's Writing Center is here to help. Visit their Writing Support page to find help with all kinds of project, including "reports; résumés and cover letters; admission essays and personal statements; summaries, critical analyses, and literature reviews; research and term papers; theses and dissertations; and more." Writing Center coaches are available at all stages of the writing process: assignment discussion, brainstorming, outlining, thesis creation and development, argumentation, draft revision, and citation.

From this page you may:

  • Schedule an appointment with a writing coach
  • Submit a paper to the Online Writing Center for review
  • Select Writing Resources to find help with citation, grammar, avoiding plagiarism, and more

Academic integrity and plagiarism information

Using websites, blogs and social media responsibly

The advantage of using library databases is that the articles and reports are generally from well-recognized business publishers. However, many government agencies and industry associations employ experts and distribute valuable information on the Web.  And, checking a company's website for their annual report (if a public company), their mission statement and their product marketing can help you to get a sense of their corporate culture.  Before you use any information, but especially from the Internet, ask yourself "Is it C R A A P?"

CRAAP test

The CRAAP acronym was coined by Sarah Blakeslee at Meriam Library at California State University.