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Writing Resources

The sources listed on this page emphasize English language grammar and writing.

Citation Styles

Click the links below to find help with the citation style required for your assignment.

These citation styles are used most often at Webster University.

These styles are preferred by some programs/disciplines. 

Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Information

Digital Object Identifier

Since 2000 there has been an effort to assign everything that exists in the digital world such as online articles with a unique number called a Digital Object Identifier or a DOI.  The DOI is unique, permanent, and persistent. It remains the same despite changes in URL's or permanent removal from the Internet.

In APA style, use the DOI in citations whenever possible. If no DOI is present, try the free DOI lookup from CrossRef. For more information, watch the short video, Citing an article with a DOI and without a DOI (University of Maryland University College). If you have questions, Webster students, faculty and staff should contact the Webster U. Library Reference Department (info in the Help box).

How do I cite the library's databases?

When you cite a full text article retrieved from a library database, some citation styles require you to cite the database name and/or a URL. Here’s how Webster’s most-used citation styles address this issue: 

APA (7th): Requires that one include only the Digital Object Identifier / DOI if available. If there is no DOI listed in the database or on the article itself do not include any database information nor a URL.   

MLA (9th); Chicago; AMA; Harvard: If there is a DOI, add both it and the database name to the citation. If a DOI is not available, include the database name and provide the database permalink or, if no permalink, a URL. Our FAQ, finding a database permalink, shows how to obtain a permalink from two of our biggest database platforms, ProQuest and EBSCOhost.  

Be sure to check the appropriate citation guide for how to format the citation in the style required for your assignment.